SOIL MECHANICS is one of the major sciences for resolving problems related to geology and geophysical engineering. Soil mechanics studies are very important for civil engineers because based on the findings of soil mechanics studies, engineering structures are constructed.A geotechnical engineer determines and designs the type of foundations, earthworks, and/or pavement subgrades required for the intended man-made structures to be built.
STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING is a sub-discipline of civil engineering in which structural engineers are trained to design the ‘bones and muscles’ that create the form and shape of manmade structures. Structural engineers need to understand and calculate the stability, strength and rigidity of built structures for buildings and non-building structures. The structural designs are integrated with those of other designers such as architects and building services engineer and often supervise the construction of projects by contractors on site.Foundations are designed and constructed for structures of various sizes such as high-rise buildings, bridges, medium to large commercial buildings, and smaller structures where the soil conditions do not allow code-based design. Structural engineering is a sub-discipline of civil engineering in which structural engineers are trained to design
HYDRAULIC ENGINEERINGis the application of the principles of fluid mechanics to problems dealing with the collection, storage, control, transport, regulation, measurement, and use of water. Before beginning a hydraulic engineering project, one must figure out how much water is involved. The hydraulic engineer is concerned with the transport of sediment by the river, the interaction of the water with its alluvial boundary, and the occurrence of scour and deposition.
PILE FOUNDATION, a kind of deep foundation, is actually a slender column or long cylinder made of materials such as concrete or steel which are used to support the structure and transfer the load at desired depth either by end bearing or skin friction. Pile foundations are deep foundations. They are formed by long, slender, columnar elements typically made from steel or reinforced concrete, or sometimes timber. A foundation is described as ‘piled’ when its depth is more than three times its breadth.
Pile foundations are usually used for large structures and in situations where the soil at shallow depth is not suitable to resist excessive settlement, resist uplift, etc.
Following are the situations when using a pile foundation system can be
Pile foundations can be classified based on function, materials and installation process, etc. Followings are the types of pile foundation used in construction:
A.Based on Function or Use
2.Load Bearing Piles
3.End bearing Piles
5.Soil Compactor Piles
B.Based on Materials and Construction Method
Sometimes piles are driven at placed closed intervals to increase the bearing capacity of soil by compacting.
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